Global Agenda Non-Military Security

Role of Nuclear Energy Vis-à-Vis Green Transition in Central Europe

Alžbeta Gavalcová

The Central Europe region is specific for its relatively low share of renewable energy. There is a clear and unarguable need for massive deployment of renewable energy to reach the European Green Deal and global climate goals while also ensuring the energy security of countries in the face of war in Ukraine. However, the role of nuclear energy in the energy mix of EU countries has remained controversial over the years, even though the V4 countries overall have a rather positive stance towards it. All the countries are in the process of developing new nuclear projects. Poland is planning to build its first nuclear power plant, and the Czech Republic has plans to deploy small modular reactors for heating cities to face the phase-out of coal. A clear aim for the countries in the region should be to focus on the diversification from the Russian fuel provided to power plants, especially in countries where nuclear energy represents a substantial part of the energy mix. Despite the advantages that nuclear energy may bring for the transition process, especially for Poland, the development of renewable energy will remain a key towards green transition and climate neutrality. The paper also focuses on the multiple obstacles to the massive deployment of renewables, which governments should focus on.

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